Selenium Testing Best Practices: How To Create Robust And Reliable Test Scripts

Selenium is a well-established open-source testing tool that enables QA engineers to automate tests for web applications. Its versatility as a web automation testing tool is due to its support for multiple programming languages and platforms. By automating tests, QA engineers can reduce their reliance on manual testing and perform tests more quickly, thus reducing the time-to-market of the application.

The rapid evolution of digital technologies has led to the creation of increasingly complex web applications, which present new challenges for QA engineers. It is essential for websites to deliver a seamless user experience to remain competitive in today’s market. The role of QA engineers is critical in ensuring that these websites function effectively and meet user expectations.

What is the Selenium Framework?

The Selenium Framework is a popular and widely used set of testing tools that offer automation capabilities for desktop and mobile web browser interactions. With the Selenium Framework, software testers can automate various testing tasks such as navigation, form filling, clicking, scrolling, and more.

Selenium WebDriver, which is the most frequently used tool within the Selenium suite, is a browser automation framework that allows software testers to create automated regression tests for their applications. Using Selenium WebDriver, developers can write test scripts in various programming languages, such as Java, Python, Ruby, and C#, making it highly versatile.

Popular uses of Selenium

  • Selenium is popularly used for automated testing, which is helpful for automating regression tests, saving time, and increasing test coverage. 
  • The framework can also integrate with other tools and frameworks, allowing for flexibility and customization in test automation.
  • Selenium can perform various testing services, including performance testing, web application testing, and mobile testing.
  • Selenium offers integration capabilities that enable the simultaneous execution of tests on multiple machines and browsers, resulting in faster test execution times for large projects. Selenium is highly customizable and flexible, allowing for integration with various frameworks and tools.

Cloud-based digital experience testing platform like LambdaTest that facilitates end-to-end Selenium testing, allowing users to test their applications on over 3000 real devices, operating systems, and browsers. Running tests on a scalable infrastructure provides users with higher test coverage and faster build times, resulting in an improvement in the overall quality and reliability of their applications.

Best practices for Selenium testing

  • Using the correct locators

To ensure successful Selenium automation, it’s crucial for QAs to be adept at using various locator strategies for identifying the web elements of the application being tested. If the test scripts fail to locate the correct elements, the tests will not execute properly.

For instance, to automate the input of credentials in the Username and Password fields of a login page, the first step is to locate these text fields accurately. 

  • Page Object Model

As customer demands continue to evolve, websites are expected to frequently update their user interfaces, which also means the locators associated with specific UI elements may change. This can create a challenge for QAs, who may need to create new test cases for the same page repeatedly, which can be a time-consuming process. To address this issue, implementing the Page Object Model design pattern for creating test scripts can be highly effective.

This design pattern treats each web page as a class file, with corresponding web elements within the class file. By utilizing this approach, QAs can avoid code duplication and simplify test maintenance. They can also reuse existing code and make minimal modifications, resulting in increased efficiency.

  • Using real devices for Selenium testing

It’s worth noting that using real devices for Selenium testing can help identify potential issues that may not surface when using emulators. This is because emulators are not exact replicas of physical devices and may not fully capture the nuances and complexities of real-world scenarios.

Furthermore, relying solely on emulators can lead to false positives or false negatives in test results, as they may not accurately reflect the user experience on an actual device. Real devices can provide a more accurate representation of how users interact with the software, enabling QA teams to detect and resolve issues that may affect the end-user experience.

However, testing on physical devices can be more time-consuming and resource-intensive than using emulators, as it requires access to a variety of devices and operating systems. It may also require additional setup and configuration for each device, which can further increase the time and effort required for testing.

Despite these challenges, using real devices for Selenium testing can ultimately lead to more reliable and comprehensive test results, which can help improve the quality and usability of the software being tested.

  • Setting up the test environment to capture screenshots

There are several reasons why Selenium scripts may fail during testing. These include changes in the application’s user interface, alterations in the test environment, and unexpected errors in the code. When a test fails, it can be challenging to identify the exact reason why the script did not execute correctly. It is therefore essential to have a robust testing infrastructure that can assist in quickly identifying and resolving any issues that arise.

One effective way of achieving this is by setting up the test environment to capture screenshots automatically when a test fails. This approach can provide visual insights into the state of the AUT at the time of failure, allowing testers to identify any unexpected changes in the application’s behavior or user interface. These screenshots can then be used to diagnose the issue and pinpoint the root cause of the failure, whether it is due to a bug in the AUT or an error in the test code.

Automating the process of capturing screenshots when a test fails can save valuable time and effort for testers. Instead of manually trying to reproduce the error, they can quickly examine the screenshots to identify any discrepancies and take the necessary steps to resolve the issue. This can help reduce the time to fix and ensure that testing remains efficient and effective. Overall, incorporating automatic screenshot capture into the testing infrastructure is an essential best practice for any Selenium testing project.

  • Prior planning and designing test cases

It is crucial for QA teams to plan and design test cases before beginning automation testing. This process involves identifying all possible scenarios and creating comprehensive test cases from the perspective of end-users. Failing to establish a clear test plan before proceeding with automation can result in roadblocks during later stages of testing.

In some cases, QA engineers may prioritize ensuring that scripts run correctly over planning for extensive testing scenarios. However, this approach is inadequate for ensuring thorough testing of web applications. It is essential to focus on identifying all possible test scenarios and creating detailed test cases to achieve optimal testing outcomes. By doing so, QA teams can ensure that they cover all important use cases and identify potential issues that may otherwise go unnoticed. Ultimately, careful planning and the design of test cases are critical steps in ensuring the success of any automation testing effort.

  • Browser compatibility matrix

To express it differently, selecting the appropriate browsers (including their versions) and operating systems to test automated scripts on can be a daunting task. To simplify this process, it is advisable to utilize a browser compatibility matrix.

A browser compatibility matrix compiles data from various sources, such as browser and device usage statistics, product analysis, and target audience preferences, among others. Using this information, the matrix narrows down the list of browsers and devices to focus on for testing. This approach limits the scope to the most relevant browser-OS combinations, making the process more manageable.

By using a browser compatibility matrix, QA teams can ensure that they cover the most critical browsers and devices used by their target audience. This helps minimize the risk of overlooking significant issues related to browser or OS compatibility. Overall, the use of a compatibility matrix is an essential best practice for any automation testing project, ensuring that resources are optimized and testing outcomes are optimal.

  • Using Implicit or Explicit Wait Commands in Selenium

Loading individual web pages on a browser can take time, which can vary based on network conditions, server issues, or system configurations. To address this, QA teams often use the Thread.sleep() method, which halts the automation script for a set duration.

However, this method is not the most effective. It may cause issues when a website takes longer to load than the specified time or when a site loads faster, leading to slower test execution. An alternative and more efficient solution is to use Implicit or Explicit Wait Commands in Selenium.

Using Implicit or Explicit Wait Commands in Selenium enables the script to wait for the page elements to load dynamically before proceeding with the next step, avoiding timeouts and minimizing test failure due to page load issues. This approach leads to more reliable automation tests and improves the overall quality of the testing process.

  • Prioritizing specific test cases

Testing intricate web applications can pose a challenge. Therefore, prioritizing specific test cases over others can help in achieving test coverage objectives. It is essential for QA teams to identify which test cases are critical and prioritize their execution.

By prioritizing tests, QA teams can focus on critical functionalities, ensuring that they are working correctly, rather than spending time on less important features. Identifying and prioritizing test cases also helps in creating an efficient and effective testing process, enabling QA teams to complete testing within the specified time frame.


There are many ways to enhance test automation processes, and following these best practices can certainly help. One of the most significant benefits of test automation is identifying and resolving defects early in the development cycle. Therefore, it’s crucial to plan and design an effective test strategy before writing Selenium automation scripts. Taking the time to think through the test scenarios and approach can result in more efficient and reliable test automation. So, it’s always wise to work smart and prioritize test design and strategy to achieve the best possible results.